Duus

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Defar wanag wu yomb bu am barigo ak mbañ gàcce.[1]

Ab duus wala wanag mooy xeetu wanag wi nit ñi di bàyyi seeni ginaaw kër ci pax muñ gas ci suuf. Duus yooyu duñu soxla sotti ndox wala duñu soxla ludul benn ba ñatti liitaru ndox ngir jàllale neefere yi.[2] Sudee niñu ko tabaxee baax na, ñu koy toppatoo bu baax, mën na tax ba yenn feebar yiy bawoo ci neeferey nit nefere yi ci mbedd mi wàññiku bu baax.[3][4] Dina wàññi li weñ yi di jëlee ciy doomu-jàngoro yiy bawoo ci neefere di leen yóbbu ci lekk yi.[3] Yooyu doomu-jàngoro ñooy gën a faral di indi feebaru biir bu daw ak feebaru saan.[4] Feebaru biir bu daw faat na lu tollu ci 0.7 miliyoŋ ciy xale yu amagul juróomi at ci atum 2011 ak 250 miliyoŋ ciy fan yuñ jàngul.[4][5] Xeetu duus yooyu ñoo gën a yomb ngir tàxale nit ñi ak seeni ginaaw kër.[3]

Booy tabax xeetu duus boobu war nga def ñatti mbir: gas am pax, wut kubéer gooy teg ci kawam te wutal ko bën-bën bu xawa yaatu, ak mbañ gàcce.[2] Pax mi war na am gën gaa néew 3 meetar (10 feet) ci xóotaay ak 1 m (3.2 feet) ci jameetar.[2] OMS (Mbootaay Wérgi-yaram ci Àdduna bi xelal na nit ñi, ñu tabax duus fu soriwul lool waye itam fu jegewul lool bay sonal nit ñi ak xet gu bon.[3] ndox mi ci biir suuf ak ndox mi ci kaw suuf luñu gën sorante gën a baax suku defee benn du laal moroom ma. Bën-bën bi ci kubéer gi itam warul am lu ëpp 25 sàntimeetar (9.8 inches)ci jameetar ngir moytu xale yi di ci daanu. Waru ñu ko bàyyi muy leer ndax loolu mën na indi weñ yi. Soo ko bëggee def dangay wut kubéer guy tëj pax mi su kenn nekkul ci duus bi.[3] Sudee duus bi demee ba tollu ci 0.5 meetar (1.6 feet) ngir mu fees, dañu ko wara ŋàcci wala ñu taxab duus bu bees, daaldi ciy toxal mbañ gàcce gi wala tabax bu bees.[6] ŋacci neefere yi ci foos lu jafe la. Mën na indi ay jafe-jafe ci seeni dëkkuwaay ak ci seen wérgi-yaram.

Ginaaw buñ tabaxee duus bi, mën nañu ci yokk yeneen mbir ngir gën ko baaxal. Mën nañu yokk ab tiyo ci kaw dal bi. Dina tax ngelaw li mën a jàll boole ci di wàññi xet gu bon gi. Dina tax itam weñ yi wàññiku suñu muurée boppu tiyo bi ak sagar bu yaraax (ñu bari di faral di jëfandikoo mustikeer). Xeetu duus yooyu dañu wara am kubéer gu koy tëj ci suuf.[6] Ngir mu gën a dëgër itam mën nañu tabax dal bi ba ndox mi yépp di dug ci pax mi ba noppi wërale dal bi ak ay birik ak simaa ndax mu gën a taxaw.[2][6]

Ci atum 2013 xayma nañu lu tollu ci 1.77 miliyaar ciy nit ñuy jëfandikoo yooyu xeetu duus.[7] Lim baa ngi ëppee ci réew yu néew doole yi ak ñi dëkk ci kaw ga ak ci àll bi. Ci atum 2011 lu tollu 2.5 miliyaar ciy doomu aadama amu ñu duus bu baax ak benn miliyaar ciy doomu aadama yu dem wanag ci seen wetu kër.[8] Asia gu Gànjool ak Afriku suufi Sahara ñoo gën a bonle ay duus ci àdduna bi.[8] Defarug duus ci réew yu néew doole yi dafay laaj luy tollu ci diggante 25 ak 60 USD.[9] Njëgu toppatoo gi ci at mu nekk, tollu na ci diggante 1.5 ak 4 USD nit ku nekk waaye duñu ci bàyyi xel.[10] Ci yen dëkku kaw yi ci réewum End am na kàmpaañ bu tudd "No Toilet, No Bride" (Ku amul duus, du am jabar) buñ fa amal ngir duus yi gën a bari, seenum pexe mooy ñaax jigéen ñi ñu bañ a sëy ak góor gu mënul am duus ci këram.[11][12]

Royuwaay yi[Soppisoppi gongikuwaay bi]

  1. WEDC. Latrine slabs: an engineer’s guide, WEDC Guide 005 (PDF). Water, Engineering and Development Centre The John Pickford Building School of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University. p. 22. ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6. 
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 et 2,3 Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2 ed.). Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 9783906484570. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 et 3,4 "Simple pit latrine (fact sheet 3.4)". who.int. 1996. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  4. 4,0 4,1 et 4,2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). United Nations. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H; Black, RE (Apr 20, 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.". Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. PMID 23582727. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. 
  6. 6,0 6,1 et 6,2 François Brikké (2003). Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 108. ISBN 9241562153. 
  7. Graham, JP; Polizzotto, ML (May 2013). "Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.". Environmental health perspectives 121 (5): 521–30. PMID 23518813. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206028. 
  8. 8,0 et 8,1 Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2014 update. (pdf). WHO. 2014. pp. 16–20. ISBN 9789241507240. 
  9. Selendy, Janine M. H. (2011). Water and sanitation-related diseases and the environment challenges, interventions, and preventive measures. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 25. ISBN 9781118148600. 
  10. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa Where Do We Stand?. Intl Water Assn. 2013. p. 161. ISBN 9781780405414. 
  11. Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Cambridge University Press. 2013. p. 623. ISBN 9781107435247. 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). "Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do"". Development Impact. Blog of World Bank. Retrieved 17 November 2014.